Journal of Interpretation Research


Volume 24, Number 1

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A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


More than Just a Crash of Rhinos: A Self-Study of My Time as a Wildlife Interpreter
Alexandra M. Burris

The Place of Inspiration in Heritage Interpretation: A Conceptual Analysis
Jacquline Gilson, Richard Kool

Crowding, Race, and Ethnicity: A Case Study at Onondaga Cave State Park
KangJae Jerry Lee, Mark Morgan, Hyojeong Shim

The Devil Made Me Do It: Influence of Values on Interpretation and Behaviors for Tasmanian Devils
Jeffrey C. Skibins, Betty Weiler, Kevin Markwell, Lian Wilson


Effectiveness of Interpreter Training in the Japanese Interpretive Context and Opportunities for Improving Interpretation: An Impact Assessment of a Training Program in Japan
Naoko Yamada, Jeffrey C. Skibins

The Application of GPS Visitor Tracking: Implications for Interpretation at Heritage Sites
Ryan L. Sharp, Ted T. Cable, Aubrey Burns

Contested Terrain: Attitudes of Lakota People Towards Interpretation at Wind Cave National Park
Dave Smaldone, Adam Rossi


Volume 23, Number 2

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A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


Are We Preaching to the Same Choir? A Mixed-Methods Comparison of Audiences at Animal-Themed Interpretive Facilities 
Susan Caplow 

Increasing Visitor Engagement During Interpretive Walking Tours
David Douglas, Gary Ellis, Andrew Lacanienta

The Impact of Appropriate Interpersonal Touch (AIT) via Handshake on Perceived Credibility of Interpreter and Message
Mickey Shortt, Jr., Shelby Gull Laird, Ray Darville, Pat Stephens Williams

A Comparison of Traditional and Facilitated Dialogue Programs in Grand Teton National Park: An Evaluation for the Future of Interpretive Programs
Pat Stephens Williams, Ray Darville, Matthew McBroom


The Professor, the Anteater, and the Spellbound Boys: The Case for Spontaneous Interpretation
Brett Bannor

Volume 23, Number 1

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A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


Every Kid in the Woods: The Outdoor Education Experience of Diverse Youth
Aracely C. Montero, Nina S. Roberts, Jackson Wilson, Lynn Fonfa

Measuring Elaboration and Evaluating Its Influence on Behavioral Intentions
Zachary D. Miller, Wayne Freimund, Robert B. Powell


Can interpretive graphics influence visitor behavior in an exhibit space?
Allison M. Price, Jessica C. Monahan, Rachel Bergren

Learning in the HJ Andrews Forest: Experiences and Outcomes at a Science Education Event
Lauren Remenick


Volume 22, Number 2

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A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


An Investigation into the Impact of Environmental Education Certification on Perceptions of Personal Teaching Efficacy
Mandy Harrison, Lisa Gross, Jennifer McGee

Interpretation Training Needs in the 21st Century: A Needs Assessment of Interpreters in the National Park Service
Robert B. Powell, Gina L. Depper, Brett A. Wright

Can an Immersion Exhibit Inspire Connection to Nature and Environmentally Responsible Behavior?
Lisa Pennisi, N. Qwynne Lackey, Stephen M. Holland


Digital Heritage Interpretation: Learning From the Realm of Real-World
Hafizur Rahaman, Tan Beng Kiang

A Brief Evaluation of an Interpretive, Self-Guided Mobile Tour
Rebecca K. Britt


Mind the Gap: Academics, Interpreters, and Historical Interpretation
Eugene R.H. Tesdahl

Volume 22, Number 1

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A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


Interpretive Accommodations for National Park Service Visitors Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Elsa Hansen, Julie Ernst, Julia Washburn

Predicting Intentions to Return to a Nature Center after an Interpretive Special Event
Austin G. Barrett, Andrew J. Mowen, Alan R. Graefe

Understanding and Influencing State Park Visitors’ Leave No Trace Behavioral Intent
Ben Lawhon, B. Derrick Taff, Peter Newman, Wade M. Vagias, Jennifer Newton


Evaluation of Interpretive Media Use and Effectiveness at a Nature Center
Marisol Mayorga, Ted T. Cable, Chris Mullins

Interpreting Terrorism: Learning from Children’s Visitor Comments
Mary Margaret Kerr, Rebecca H. Price, Constance Demore Savine


Volume 21, Number 2

Download complete issue. A Note from the Editor Carolyn C. Ward

Evaluating Environmental Interpretation with Mixed Method: A Case Study at the International Crane Foundation, Wisconsin
Qing Ren, Elizabeth Folta

Memories on the Trail: Families Connecting Their Prior Informal Learning Experiences to the Natural World During Nature Walks
Lucy R. McClain, Heather Toomey Zimmerman


Hot Interpretation of Controversial Topics at Batoche National Historic Site, Saskatchewan, Canada
Glen T. Hvenegaard, Heather J. Marshall, Raynald Lemelin


On the Need to Interpret Insects: An Always Small but Gargantuan Opportunity
Nathan J. Shipley, Robert D. Bixler

Volume 21, Number 1

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A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


Roving with a Digital Visual Library: Increased Learning Opportunities at Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Martha Merson, Louise C. Allen, Pam L. Cox, Nickolay I. Hristov


Multiculturalism, Language Barriers, and Service Quality
Mark Morgan, Kai Qiao

Sharing Experiences, Constructing Memories: An Ethnographic Report of Naturalists in the Field
Joshua E. Hunter

Evaluation of New Interpretive Elements in an Aquarium Renovation

Brian Ogle


I Believe, Therefore I Am!
Will LaPage

The issues below are available as PDF only.


Volume 20, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


Choosing Illustrations of Spider (Faces) for Best First Impressions In Natural History Interpretive Programs: A Program Component Analysis
Robert D. Bixler, Courtney L. Crosby, Kelly N. Howell, Teresa W. Tucker

The application of the interpretive master planning process for natural and cultural resources and ecotourism to help reduce negative environmental impact on these sites: A Case Study of Ban Watchan Royal Project, Thailand
Daranee Danwandee, Luxsana Summaniti, Kriangsak Sri-ngrnyung


Evaluating the West Virginia Interpretive Guide Heritage Steward Program
Doug Arbogast, Dave Smaldone, Kelly Balcarczyk

Communication Strategies to Promote Health: Sun Safety in Outdoor Recreation Settings
Larry Beck, Barbara Walkosz, Peter Andersen, Allison Abbott, David Buller, Michael Scott, Rachel Eye

Volume 20, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


Introduction: Effectively Connecting with Communities Across Cultures: There’s No App for That!
Nina S. Roberts

Parks and Underserved Audiences: An Annotated Literature Review
James L. Pease


Visitors’ Satisfaction with Interpretive Services at the Southern Sichuan Bamboo Sea, China
Minyan Zhao, Howard W. Harshaw, Wenyuan Dong, Wen Ye, Jiajun Liu, Tengwei Su

Inspiring the Outdoor Experience: Does the Path Through a Nature Center Lead Out the Door?
Thomas Beery, K. Ingemar Jönsson


Volume 19, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward


Assessing the Effectiveness of Artistic Place-Based Climate Change Interpretation
Austin Barrett, Andrew J. Mowen

Perception of Thematic-Based Interpretation at the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial: A Study of Korean Visitors
Mark Morgan, Geumchan Hwang

Assessing the Needs of Interpreter Training in Japan
Naoko Yamada


The Churches of Venice: Sacred Places or Museum Spaces?
Venelina Dali Saunders

Analysis of Best Practices for Interpretation Development at Public Gardens
Nate M. Tschaenn, Robert E. Lyons, Dottie Miles, Jules Bruck

Volume 19, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn C. Ward

Free-Choice Family Learning: A Literature Review for the National Park Service
Colleen M. Bourque, Ana K. Houseal, Kate M. Welsh, Matthew Wenger


A New Interpretive Pedagogy
Doug Knapp, Brian Forist


Volume 18, Number 2
Special Issue: Interpretation: Making a Difference on Purpose

Introduction to Special Issue
Sam H. Ham

What Leads to Better Visitor Outcomes in Live Interpretation?
Marc J. Stern, Robert B. Powell

Is It the Program or the Interpreter? Modeling the Influence of Program Characteristics and Interpreter Attributes on Visitor Outcomes
Robert B. Powell, Marc J. Stern

Speculating on the Role of Context in the Outcomes of Interpretive Programs
Robert B. Powell, Marc J. Stern

The Difference Between Good Enough and Great: Bringing Interpretive Best Practices to Life
Marc J. Stern, Robert B. Powell, Kevin D. McLean, Emily Martin, Jennifer M. Thomsen, Bethany A. Mutchler

Book Review: Interpretation: Making a Difference on Purpose
Carolyn Ward

Volume 18, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward


Assessing Interest in Sustainable Seafood through Strategically Framed Interpretive Statements
Jess Reese

Factors Influencing Behavioral Intentions for Leave No Trace Behavior in National Parks
Ben Lawhon, Peter Newman, Derrick Taff, Jerry Vaske, Wade Vagias, Steve Lawson, Christopher Monz

Visitor Evaluation of Night Sky Interpretation in Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument
Britton L. Mace, Jocelyn McDaniel


Impact of Inquiry Stations on Visitor Time
Sarena Randall Gill

The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in a Science Field Trip
Gregory M. Benton

The Understanding and Implementation of Key Best Practices in National Park Service Education Programs
Kristin A. “Kale” Bowling


Preparing to Be an Interpretive Naturalist: Opinions from the Field
Jonathan R. Ivey, Robert D. Bixler

Conversations: Tilden’s Fifth Principle
Sam Ham, James Carter, Larry Beck, Ted Cable, Carolyn Ward


Volume 17, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward


Influence of Activity Involvement and Place Attachment on Volunteer Interpreters’ Satisfaction in Taiwan
Su-Lan Pan, Homer C. Wu, Ju Chou, Steven Simpson

Comparing Interpretive Methods Targeting Invasive Species Management at Cumberland Island National Seashore
Ryan L. Sharp, Lincoln R. Larson, Gary T. Green, Sara Tomek


Towards a Cultural Analysis: The Need for Ethnography in Interpretation Research
Joshua E. Hunter, PhD

Reflections on Educational Leadership & Innovation: An Agenda for New Research
Inez S. Wolins

Volume 17, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward


Early Childhood Nature Play: A Needs Assessment of Minnesota Licensed Childcare Providers
Julie Athman Ernst

Exploring Empirical Support for Interpretation’s Best Practices
Jeffrey C. Skibins, Robert B. Powell, Marc J. Stern

The Effect of Tour Type on Visitors’ Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning
Christine M. Van Winkle

Getting Campers To Interpretive Programs: Understanding Constraints To Participation
Jessica L. Goodrich, Robert D. Bixler


Volume 16, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward


Multiple Goal Conveyance in a State Park Interpretive Boat Cruise
Gregory M. Benton

Visitor Responses to Interpretation at Historic Kingsley Plantation
Carol Clark, Pat Stephens Williams, Michael Legg, Ray Darville

Why Do They Come? Understanding Attendance at Ranger-Led Programs in Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Marc J. Stern, Robert B. Powell, Karen S. Hockett


Investigating the Impact of Interpretive Signs at Neighborhood Natural Areas
Shawn K. Davis, Jessica L. Thompson

Volume 16, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward


As Good as the Real Thing? A Comparative Study of Interpretive Podcasts and Traditional Ranger Talks
Karen B. Henker, Greg Brown

A Descriptive Study of Guided Tours at Mammoth Cave National Park
Mark Morgan, Cara Walker

Environmental Socialization Incidents with Implications for the Expanded Role of Interpretive Naturalists in Providing Natural History Experiences
Robert D. Bixler, J. Joy James, Carin E. Vadala


Evaluating the Effectiveness of Live Interactive Virtual Explorations Involving a Hard-to-Reach Native American Earth Lodge and a Pacific Island Volcanoes Site
Kimberly Mann Bruch, Hans-Werner Braun, Susan Teel
Interpretive effectiveness at Kanha Tiger Reserve, India
Gregory M. Benton, Bitapi C. Sinha


Volume 15, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

Tribute: David L. Larsen
Stephen T. Mather Training Center Staff


Evaluation of a Third-Generation Zoo Exhibit in Relation to Visitor Behavior and Interpretation Use
Andrew Moss, Maggie Esson, David Francis


Bob Valen

How National Park Service Operations Relate to Law and Policy
John W. (Bill) Wade

The Anchor on a Long Chain: The National Park Service Act of 1916 Related to Historical and Cultural Resources
Jerry L. Rogers

Volume 15, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

Improvisational Theater Games for Children in Park Interpretation
E. Kim Macklin, Glen T. Hvenegaard, Paul E. Johnson

Comparative Evaluation of the Attention Capture and Holding Power of Novel Signs Aimed at Park Visitors
Troy E. Hall, Sam H. Ham, Brenda K. Lackey

An Evaluation of the Impact of River Guide Interpretation Training on the Client’s Knowledge and Interest Regarding the Environment
Dr. Mandy Harrison, Dr. Sarah Banks, Dr. Joy James

Beyond the Basics
Olivia Buck


Volume 14, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

From Principle to Practice: Four Conceptions of Interpretation
Gregory M. Benton

Living Heritage: An Experimental Model Mixing Heritage and Entertainment
David W. Saxe

Interpretation and Place Attachment: Implications for Cognitive Map Theory
Mark Morgan

Australian Postgraduate Theses in Interpretation, Tour Guiding, and Environmental Education
Betty Weiler, Rosemary Black, Roy Ballantyne

Volume 14, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

What Information Do Zoo and Aquarium Visitors Want on Animal Identification Labels?
John Fraser, Ph.D., AIA; Jessica Bicknell; Jessica Sickler; Anthony Taylor, Ph.D.

Improving the Efficacy of Visitor Education in Haleakalā National Park Using the Theory of Planned Behavior
Nathan Reigner, Steven R. Lawson

From Interpretation to Protection: Is There a Theoretical Basis?
Sam H. Ham

Adult Participants’ Preferences for Interpretation at a Japanese Nature Park
Naoko Yamada, Doug H. Knapp


Volume 13, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

Practicing What We Preach
Robin S. Grenier, Ph.D.

The State of Interpretation in Academia
Brenda K. Lackey, Ph.D.

Should NAI Develop a Program to Accredit University Curricula? (Probably Not Just Yet)
Sam H. Ham, Troy E. Hall

Certification and the National Park Service
David L. Larsen

Why We Should Communicate, Rather Than Interpret: A Call to Arms
Levi Novey

NAI’s Certification Program: A Decade of Growth and Change
Lisa Brochu

Volume 13, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

The Interpretive Power of Setting: Identifying and Protecting the Interpretive Potential of the Internal and External Setting at Copan Archaeological Park, Honduras
Christopher C. Mayer, Ph.D., George N. Wallace, Ph.D.

Characteristics of Animals Used in Zoo Interpretation: A Synthesis of Research
Nicholas E. Fuhrman, Howard Ladewig

Measuring Passenger Satisfaction of Interpretive Programming on Two Amtrak Trains in the Midwest: Testing the Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory
Mark Morgan, Xiaodan Dong

A Systems-Based Interpretive Planning Model that Links Culturally Constructed Place Meanings and Conservation
Jon Kohl, Ted Eubanks

Why We Should Communicate, Rather Than Interpret: A Reply
Kim Sikoryak

An Evaluation of a Headwaters Institute Watershed Seminar
Marion B. Harrison Ph.D., Sarah Banks Ph.D.


Volume 12, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

The Effect of Moral and Fear Appeals on Park Visitors’ Beliefs about Feeding Wildlife
Karen S. Hockett, Troy E. Hall

An Action Research Appraisal of Visitor Center Interpretation and Change
Philip L. Pearce, Gianna Moscardo

Teacher Persistence in Implementing EE: Implications for the Interpretive Community
Julie Athman Ernst

An Applied Evaluation at a Living History Museum
Jamie J. Peterson

Volume 12, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

Isolating the Role of On-site Interpretation in a Satisfying Experience
Sam H. Ham, Betty Weiler

Voices from the Profession: Principles of Successful Guided Cave Interpretation
Penny Davidson, Ph.D., Rosemary Black, Ph.D.

Geointerpretation: The Interpretive Potential of Maps
Heidi Bailey, David Smaldone, Ph.D., Gregory Elmes, Ph.D.,
Robert Burns, Ph.D.

Connecting to Home-Place through Community-focused Heritage Interpretive Planning
Lesley P. Curthoys, Brent Cuthbertson, Julie Clark


Volume 11, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

The Effect of Thematic Interpretation on a Child’s Knowledge of an Interpretive Program
Jennifer L. Tarlton & Carolyn J. Ward

The Impact of Normative Message Types on Off-Trail Hiking
Patricia L. Winter

The Concept of Authenticity: Implications for Interpretation
Steve Hill & Ted T. Cable

Volume 11, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

An Interpretation Specialization Continuum of Environmental Volunteerism In Taiwan
Mark Morgan, Hui-nien Lin, Ju Chou, and Homer Wu

The Development of Semantic Memories Through Interpretation
Doug Knapp, Ph.D.

The Common Roots of Environmental Education and Interpretation
Ted T. Cable and LuAnn Cadden

Form Follows Function: Interpretive Wisdom for Environmental Educators
Eve M. Turek

My Relationship with Interpretation and Environmental Education
Doug Knapp

A Public’s Awareness of Regional Parks and Park Management Agencies with Implications for Management-oriented Interpretation
Carin E. Vadala, Robert D. Bixler, and William E. Hammitt


Volume 10, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

Nontraditional Activities and Interpretation at National Parks: Conflict or Coexistence?
Dr. Mark Morgan

Can Interpretive Messages Change Park Visitors’ Views on Wildland Fire?
Rebecca Wiles & Troy E. Hall

Interpretation Research in Australia
Betty Weiler

The Voice of a Child: Archaeological Limitations in Interpretive Stories
Bronwyn A. Jewell

Volume 10, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

A Formative Evaluation of the Prairie Science Class
Julie (Athman) Ernst

A Shared History? Presenting Australia’s Post-Contact Indigenous Past
Bronwyn Batten

Long-Term Recollections of an Environmental Interpretive Program
Doug Knapp, Ph.D.; Gregory M. Benton, M.S.

Partnerships in Education and Interpretation
Karyn McDermaid

A 20 Years Overview and Prospect of Graduate Interpretive Research in Taiwan: 1984-2003
Homer C. Wu, Ph.D.; Wei-Li Jasmine Chen, Ph.D.

Exploring Evolved Psychological Underpinnings of Universal Concepts and Meaningful Connections
Daniel R. Tardona


Volume 9, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

Elements to Successful Interpretation: A Multiple Case Study of Five National Parks
Doug Knapp, Ph.D. and Gregory M. Benton, M.S.

The Effects of a National Wildlife Refuge’s EE Programs on Elementary School Classes’ Knowledge and Attitudes
Jason P.O’Brien, M.S. and James L. Pease, Ph.D.

Book Review: Interpreting the Land Down Under
Joseph Roggenbuck

The Future of Interpretation
Diane M. Chalfant

It’s a Matter of Balance
Sam Vaughn

Twelve Trends in the Interpretive Profession
Tim Merriman and Lisa Brochu

Myra Dec

Volume 9, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Carolyn Ward

The effects of Environment-Based Education on Students’ Achievement Motivation
Julie Athman and Martha C. Monroe

Motivations of Volunteer Interpreters in Taiwan: A Survey of Natural Trails Society Volunteers
Yi-Fan Tung and Harry C. Zinn

Book Review: Interpretive Planning
Marcella Wells, Ph.D.

Book Review: Meaningful Interpretation
Theresa G. Coble

Processing and Utilizing Counterintuitive Information in Interpretation and Resource Management: A Case Study
David Matthew Zuefle, Ph.D.

Research in Interpretation: Researcher’s Perspective
Gail A. Vander Stoep

In Search of Research: A Plea from the Workshop of a Practical Interpreter
Michael H. Glen

Interpretation Isn’t Magic: An Academic’s View on the Role of Research in Teaching Interpretation
Sam H. Ham

Research: A Voice of Our Own
David L. Larsen

Interpretation Research: A Perspective from the Field
Joe Zarki


Volume 8, Number 2
Special Issue: Bibliography of Intepretive Resources

Volume 8, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Cem Basman

Self, Space, and Interpretive Experience: The Interactionism of Environmental Interpretation
David Archer and Stephen Wearing

Assessment of Communication Focused on Human-Black Bear Conflict at Yosemite National Park
Brenda K. Lackey and Sam H. Ham

The Benefits of Naturalist-Led Interpretive Programs:
Implications for User Fees
Dr. Mark Morgan, Dr. James Absher, and Rob Whipple

Identifying the Environmental Attitudes of Iowa Businesses
Merry L. Rankin and James L. Pease, Ph.D.

Understanding Park Visitors’ Response to Interventions to Reduce Petrified Wood Theft
Carolyn Widner Ward, Ph.D. and Joseph Roggenbuck, Ph.D.

Assessing the Non-Market Value of Heritage Interpretation
Andrew D. Carver, Cem M. Basman, and John G. Lee


Volume 7, Number 2

A Note from the Editor
Cem Basman

A Phenomenological Analysis of Long-Term Recollections of an Interpretive Program
Doug Knapp and Li-Ling Yang

Using Interpretive Animals to Deliver Affective Messages in Zoos
Karen D. Povey and Jose Rios

Toward a Theory of Quality in Cruise-Based Interpretive Guiding
Sam H. Ham and Betty Weiler

Warning Visitors about the Potential Dangers of Dingoes on Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia
A.L. Porter and J.L. Howard

Volume 7, Number 1

A Note from the Editor
Cem Basman

The Meaning of Interpretation
Larry Beck and Ted Cable

Redefining Interpretation as a Core Belief for Certification of Professionals
Lisa Brochu and Tim Merriman

Be Relevant or Become a Relic: Meeting the Public Where They Are
David L. Larsen

Interpretation and the Eureka Moment
Will LaPage, Ph. D.

Visitor Studies in a Political World: Challenges to Evaluation Research
Ross J. Loomis

An Evaluation of the “Authority of the Resource” Interpretive Techniques by Rangers in Eight Wilderness/Backcountry Areas
George N. Wallace and C James Gaudry


Volume 6, Number 1

Interpretation: A Note from the Editor
Cem M. Basman

Clicking the Icon: Exploring the Meanings Visitors Attach to Three National Capital Memorials
Theresa L. Goldman, Wei-Li Jasmine Chen, and David L. Larsen

Through Their Eyes: The Meaning of Heritage Site Experiences to Visitors Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired
Lois H. Silverman and Barbara A. Masberg

Commentary: Artists, Tourists, and the Elusive Sublime: The Artist as Tourist, Interpreter, and Promoter of Tourism
Will LaPage

Commentary: Changing Images of African-American Women and Interpretation
Audrey L. Brown

Book Review: Questioning Assumptions: An Introduction to Front-End Studies in Museums

Book Review: Environmental Communication: Skills and Principles for Natural Resource Managers, Scientists, and Engineers


Volume 5, Number 2

Marcella Wells

Situated Cognition: Implications for Visitor Studies
Mary Lou Koran, Patricia Pulido Willems, and Betty Dunckel Camp

The Nature, Role, and Measurement of Affect
Robert C. Webb

The Role of Attention in Designing Effective Interpretive Labels
Stephen Bitgood

Photographs as a Research Tool in Visitor Studies
Betty Dunckel Camp, John J. Koran Jr., and Mary Lou Koran

Research Brief: Summative Evaluation of Golden Gate Canyon State Park Visitor Centor

Book Review: Exhibit Labels: An Interpretive Approach

Volume 5, Number 1

Reducing Theft of Petrified Wood at Petrified Forest National Park
Carolyn J. Widner and Joseph Roggenbuck

Perceptions of a Zoological Park: A Comparative Study of Educators and Visitors
J. Mark Morgan

Determining Social Science Research Needs in Interpretation: A Case Study
Lois H. Silverman and Elizabeth R. Barrie

Commentary: Mixed Methods in Visitor Studies Research

Research Briefs:
Factors Limiting Minority Participation in Interpretive Programming: A Case Study
Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors of Missouri 6th- and 12th-Grade Students

Book Review:
Contemporary Issues in Heritage and Environmental Interpretation


Volume 4, Number 1

Betty Weiler and Sam H. Ham

Evaluating Visitors’ Reactions to Interpretation in Australian National Parks
Elizabeth A. Beckman

Communicating with Two Million Tourists: A Formative Evaluation of an Interpretive Brochure
Gianna Moscardo

Interpretation at Wetland Sites in the Sydney Region
Yojana Chadhokar and Lynette C. McLoughlin

International Trends in Heritage and Environmental Interpretation: Future Directions for Australian Research and Practice
Roy Ballantyne and David Uzzell

Research Briefs:
Culturally Sensitive Research: Interpreting Umeewarra Mission
Assessing the Interpretation Competencies of Ecotour Guides


Volume 3, Number 1

New Model for Ecosystem Management Interpretation: Target Audiences on Military Lands
Susan K. Jacobson and Susan B. Marynowski

Ecology Versus Issue Interpretation: The Analysis of Two Different Messages
Doug Knapp and Elizabeth Barrie

An Analysis of Normative Messages in Signs at Recreation Settings
Patricia L. Winter, Robert B. Cialdini, Renee J. Bator, Kelton Rhoads, and Brad J. Sagarin

Commentary: Applying Social Marketing to Interpretation
Phoebe Bathgate Atkinson and Gary W. Mullins

Research Briefs:
A Case Study of Communication and Anglo and Hispanic Wilderness Visitors
Describing Trails: Distance or Time?

Book Reviews:
Influence: Science and Practice
Recreation Programming: A Benefits-Driven Approach


Volume 2, Number 1

Personalizing the Past: A Review of Literature with Implications for Historical Interpretation
Lois H. Silverman

The Relative Effectiveness of Interpretive Programs Directed by Youth and Adult Naturalists in a National Forest
J. Mark Morgan, James Absher, Bob Loudon, and Dave Sutherland

Environmental Interpretation for a Diverse Public:
Nature Center Planning for Minority Populations
Susan K. Jacobson, John J. Arana, and Mallory D. McDuff

Commentary: Constructing a Sociological Interpretation
Patricia A. Stokowski

Research Brief: Trip Motives of Interpretive Program Attendees and Nonattendees
James D. Absher and Alan R. Graefe

Book Reviews:
Nature and the Human Spirit
Research and Evaluation in Parks and Leisure Studies


Volume 1, Number 1

Special Introductory Issue: Invited Articles from Experts in the Field of Interpretation
Guest Editor: Cem Basman

Ted T. Cable

Activating and Aligning Two Kinds of Norms in Persuasive Communications
Robert B. Cialdini

Identifying Audiences and Messages for Nonformal Environmental Education--A Theoretical Framework for Interpreters
Sam H. Ham and Edwin E. Krumpe

The Development of Responsible Environmental Citizenship: A Critical Challenge Harold R. Hungerford

How Do We Know What the Visitor Knows?: Learning from Interpretation
Ross J. Loomis

Index of Research Articles Published in Journal of Interpretation and Legacy